A Word About Medicating Your Horse
Drugs are seldom important to First Aid Treatments. If there is any doubt about the use of a medication, contact your veterinarian. Some medications can worsen a horse’s condition. For example, tranquilizers can be dangerous if a horse is in shock and pain relievers may mask important symptoms, which could lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Medications may also encourage behavior that may worsen the problem, i.e. colicky horses will eat, injured horses may exercise.
Practice Preventative Medicine:
- Keep current on vaccinations
- Follow appropriate deworming schedule
Practice Good Horsemanship:
- Provide fresh water and quality feed in a clean area.
- Keep stalls clean.
- Know your horse’s normal habits so you will recognize changes that may indicate that something is wrong.
- Repair safety hazards in the pasture, barn, and fences.
- Do not exercise sick or injured horses.
- Know your horse’s limits, and do not exceed them.
Normal Equine Parameters
A normal horse’s vital signs fall within these ranges. It is a good idea to observe them in your individual horse when he is in a “normal” situation so you will have a better reference when he is under stress.
Temperature: 99.5 – 101.5 degrees F Pulse: 30-50 beats per minute at rest Respiratory Rate: 10-25 breaths per minute at rest Mucous membranes: pink and moist Intestinal Sounds: should be present Capillary Refill Time (CRT): less than 3 seconds
FIRST AID FOR YOUR HORSE
- Be prepared: Design a first aid kit and be able to use it.
- Don’t Panic: You have more time than you think if you use it wisely.
- Call for Help: Call your veterinarian for more information when you need help.
Your First Aid Kit
- Your veterinarian’s name and phone number.
- Have a cell phone handy.
- Information about and directions to your location.
- Antiseptic scrub (betadine or chlorhexidine base).
- Bandage material; gauze sponges, telfa/nonstick pads, cottons, diapers, leg wraps, field dressings, tape.
LEARN HOW TO PROPERLY APPLY!
- Antibiotic ointment (water soluble); Furacin (not Corona or other waxy or oil based creams).
- Sharp knife, wire cutters, pliers
- Information about your horse’s medical history and vaccination/deworming status.
- Equine Vitals (Printable PDF)
You can add other things to the kit as you accumulate them!
What you can do
- Bruising, Sprains, Strains, and Kicks:Signs:Localized pain and swelling with heat in the area.Early Treatment: Assess the lameness and rest the horse.
If the injury has occurred within the past 24 hours, apply cold water
20 minutes or ice packs to help control any swelling. If there is
no improvement or severe lameness is present, call a veterinarian.
- Eye Problems:Signs: Tearing, squinting, rubbing, swelling, cloudy or
abormal blue color to the eye.Early Treatment: Examine the eye and determine if a foreign
body is the cause of the pain. Make sure the eyelid is intact.
You may flush the eye with eye wash or sterile saline solution.DO NOT MEDICATE THE EYE! Some eye ointments or drops can worsen
certain conditions, do not apply unless instructed by a veterinarian.*Many eye problems can become severe very quickly, seek veterinary advice as soon as possible.
- Colic or Painful abdomen:Signs: Restlessness, pawing, looking at abdomen, lying down/
rolling, reluctance to eat, depressed attitude, absence of bowel movements or diarrhea.Early treatment: If horse is rolling or thrashing, get him up and
walk him. If lying quietly, allow to rest. Contact your veterinarian if signs
do not dissipate within 1 hour or if they worsen. Be prepared to answer questions
about your horse’s diet, deworming protocol, mucous membrane color, temperature,
and respiratory/heart rates.*If veterinary attention is not readily available, pain relievers such as Banamine
may be given to make the horse more comfortable. Be prepared to inform your veterinarian
of the dose, time given, and route of administration. See note above on medications!!
- Tying Up-(Azoturia, exertional muscle problems):Signs: Reluctance to move, sweating, hind muscles are tender, painful,
and/or quivering. You may see dark brown urine.Early Treatment: Do not move the horse! Call your veterinarian.
- Lacerations:Early treatment: Know the date of your horse’s last tetanus vaccination!
Irrigate the wound with cold water. If the wound is bleeding profusely, apply
direct pressure. Lower limb wounds may be bandaged. If pressure will not control
the bleeding a tourniquet can be applied above the wound, but must be loosened for
1 minute every 15-30 minutes to avoid injury due to lack of blood supply. Keep the
wound covered, if possible, and protected from flies.Medications: If the wound is full thickness (through the skin) it will
likely need to be sutured. In this case, do not apply any topical medication to
the area, as this may hinder wound healing. A furacin ointment or spray may be
applied to superficial wounds.* Deep wounds over joints or tendons are likely to need extensive veterinary
care and should be taken seriously. Wrap the area and call your veterinarian immediately.
- Puncture Wounds:These wounds can often be more serious than they may first appear. Do not underrate
punctures in the hoof or wounds over joints. If a nail or other foreign object is
embedded in the sole or frog, do not remove it before contacting your veterinarian.
Be prepared to inform your veterinarian of the wound’s location and the degree of
lameness your horse is presenting.
- Choke:This is a term to describe obstruction of the esophagus. It rarely involves blockage
of the windpipe, but aspiration of food material into the windpipe can occur.Signs: Food material and/or saliva draining from nostrils shortly after eating.Treatment: Remove food and water. Call a veterinarian.Prevention: Regular dental exam/floating. Discourage horses from “bolting”
food by feeding smaller meals at more frequent intervals and/or placing large rocks
in feed pan that they must eat around.